Granite is an igneous rock made of at least 10% quartz and a combination of other minerals, mostly feldspar. Igneous means it formed due to the hardening of molten magma, and it did so in large crystals which you can clearly visible in the processed and polished rock. This is the reason it is called “granite,” referring to the granular nature of the patterns.
Quartz is one of the hardest minerals in the world and has no color. Feldspar, the most abundant group of minerals on Earth, is made of silica and alumina. The combination of quartz and feldspar yields light-colored stone. However, it is possible to have dark minerals thrown in the mix. This gives granite a unique pattern of colors that permits no duplication, naturally or otherwise. Each granite slab installed in the home is different, even if they all came from the same stone.
There are many uses for granite, primarily as a smooth surface. It is quarried as a dimension stone, which means the source stone as blocks and slabs for decorative and structural use. It has been used as such for centuries, and it is the most abundant type of rock on Earth. Getting the best stones out, however, requires extensive experience and knowledge. It is useful for paving, flooring, gravestones, facing stones on buildings, and fireplace surrounds. Its most popular use, however, is for work areas such as vanity tops and countertops because of its durability and strength.